Water ```specific heat of water is 4.186 kJ/kgC = 4.186 J/gC = 1 calorie/gC = 5.375 J/mol·K = 1 Btu/lb-F specific heat of ice is 2.06 kJ/kgC = 2.06 J/gC specific heat of steam is 2.1 kJ/kgK = 2.1 J/gK heat of fusion of ice is 334 kJ/kg = 334 J/g heat of vaporization of water is 2256 kJ/kg = 2256 J/g density of fresh water at 20C = 0.998 g/cm³ = 0.998 kg/L = 998 kg/m³ = 8.33 lb/gal = 62.1 lb/ft³ density of ice at 0C = 0.917 g/cm³ = 917 kg/m³ = 7.64 lb / US gal speed of sound in water is 1,484 m/s or 3320 MPH Resistivity of ultra pure water is 182 kΩ·m at 25°C The triple point of water is at a temperature of 273.16K (0.01 °C) by convention, and at a pressure of 611.73 Pa Index of refraction Water (0° C) 1.33346 Water (20° C) 1.33283 Water (100° C) 1.31766 Ice 1.309 The following table list water vapour pressure kPa as a function of temperature in ºC T Pressure T Pressure 0 0.6 25 3.2 3 0.8 26 3.4 5 0.9 27 3.6 8 1.1 28 3.8 10 1.2 29 4.0 12 1.4 30 4.2 14 1.6 32 4.8 16 1.8 35 5.6 18 2.1 40 7.4 19 2.2 50 12.3 20 2.3 60 19.9 21 2.5 70 31.2 22 2.6 80 47.3 23 2.8 90 70.1 24 3.0 100 101.3 (1 atmosphere) specific heat of water versus temperature 10°C 4.1921 kJ/kgC 20°C 4.1818 kJ/kgC 30°C 4.1784 kJ/kgC 40°C 4.1785 kJ/kgC 50°C 4.1806 kJ/kgC 60°C 4.1843 kJ/kgC 70°C 4.1895 kJ/kgC 80°C 4.1963 kJ/kgC 90°C 4.2050 kJ/kgC 100°C 4.2159 kJ/kgC 120º 4.248 140º 4.29 160º 4.35 180º 4.42 200º 4.51 220º 4.63 240º 4.78 260º 4.98 280º 5.29 300º 5.65 325º 6.86 360º 14.6 Density versus temperature +100°C 958.4 kg/m³ +80°C 971.8 kg/m³ +60°C 983.2 kg/m³ +40°C 992.2 kg/m³ +30°C 995.6502 kg/m³ +25°C 997.0479 kg/m³ +22°C 997.7735 kg/m³ +20°C 998.2071 kg/m³ +15°C 999.1026 kg/m³ +10°C 999.7026 kg/m³ +4°C 999.9720 kg/m³ 0°C 999.8395 kg/m³ −10°C 998.117 kg/m³ (super cooled) −20°C 993.547 kg/m³ (super cooled) −30°C 983.854 kg/m³ (super cooled) Density of water versus pressure at 20ºC 1 bar 998.2 kg/m³ 25 bar 999.2 kg/m³ 50 bar 1000.4 kg/m³ 75 bar 1001.5 kg/m³ 100 bar 1002.7 kg/m³ Depth of 1020 meters 150 bar 1004.9 kg/m³ 200 bar 1007.1 kg/m³ Depth of 2040 meters (1 bar = 100 kPa) Density of water versus pressure at 4ºC 1 bar 999.9 kg/m³ 25 bar 1001.1 kg/m³ 50 bar 1002.3 kg/m³ 75 bar 1003.6 kg/m³ 100 bar 1004.7 kg/m³ Depth of 1020 meters 150 bar 1007.1 kg/m³ 200 bar 1009.4 kg/m³ Depth of 2040 meters (1 bar = 100 kPa) Freezing point versus Water pressure. Pressure Temp. 612 Pa† 0.01ºC (Triple point) 101 kPa 0.0ºC 16.6 MPa –1.25ºC 33 MPa –2.5ºC 60 MPa –5.0ºC 87 MPa –7.5ºC 113 MPa –10.0ºC 138 MPa –12.5ºC 159 MPa –15.0ºC 180 MPa –17.5ºC 200 MPa –20.0ºC 216 MPa –22.1ºC † Below 611.73 Pa, water does not exist as a liquid Water Ice versus temperature Temp density thermal conductivity specific heat (ºC)(kg/m3) (W/mK)(kJ/kgK) 0 916.2 2.22 2.050 or 0.033 lb/in³, 57.08 lb/ft³ -5 917.5 2.25 2.027 -10 918.9 2.30 2.000 -15 919.4 2.34 1.972 -20 919.4 2.39 1.943 -25 919.6 2.45 1.913 -30 920.0 2.50 1.882 -35 920.4 2.57 1.851 -40 920.8 2.63 1.818 -50 921.6 2.76 1.751 -60 922.4 2.90 1.681 -70 923.3 3.05 1.609 -80 924.1 3.19 1.536 -90 924.9 3.34 1.463 -100 925.7 3.48 1.389 boiling point of water Clausius–Clapeyron equation Tb = 1 / ((1/T₀) - (R ln(P/P₀) / ΔH)) T₀ is known boiling point, at P₀ P is new pressure Tb is new boiling point temperature in K R is ideal gas constant 8.314 J/Kmol P is the vapor pressure of the liquid at pressure P ΔH is the heat of vaporization of the water 40.65 kJ/mol The boiling point is raised by 0.5 degrees Celsius for water with 29.2 grams of NaCl dissolved in each kg of water. Relationship between Liters, m³, cm³, kg for water 1 liter = 0.001 m³ = 0.998 kg at 20C = 1 liter = 1000 mL = 1000 cm³ 100 m³ = 100000 L = 99800 kg 10 m³ = 10000 L = 9980 kg 1 m³ = 1000 L = 998 kg 0.1 m³ = 100 L = 99.8 kg 0.01 m³ = 10 L = 9.98 kg = 9980 g 0.001 m³ = 1 L = 1000 mL = 0.998 kg = 998 g 0.0001 m³ = 0.1 L = 100 mL = 0.0998 kg = 99.8 g 0.00001 m³ = 0.01 L = 10 mL = 0.00998 kg = 9.98 g 0.000001 m³ = 0.001 L = 1 mL = 0.000998 kg = 0.998 g ``` Seawater ```Seawater at salinity 35 g/kg, which is typical of the ocean density of seawater = 1.025 g/cm³ = 1025 kg/m³ = 8.55 lb/gal = 63.8 lb/ft³ Specific Heat at 20ºC 3993 J/KgK Freezing point −1.910 °C Boiling point 100.56 °C thermal conductivity of seawater is 0.6 W/mK speed of sound in seawater is about 1560 m/s Added NaCl: For saltwater, the boiling point is raised, and the melting point is lowered. The melting point is lowered by 1.85 degrees Celsius if 29.2 grams of salt are dissolved in each Kg of water (called a "0.5 molal solution" of salt. The Na and Cl dissociate right away when dissolved, and so for a 0.5 molal solution of salt, there is a 1.0 molal concentration of ions). The boiling point is raised by 0.5 degrees Celsius for water with 29.2 grams of salt dissolved in each kg of water. ``` Home Area, Volume Atomic Mass Black Body Radiation Boolean Algebra Calculus Capacitor Center of Mass Carnot Cycle Charge Chemistry   Elements   Reactions Circuits Complex numbers Constants Curves, lines deciBell Density Electronics Elements Flow in fluids Fourier's Law Gases Gravitation Greek Alphabet Horizon Distance Interest Magnetics Math   Trig Math, complex Maxwell's Eq's Motion Newton's Laws Octal/Hex Codes Orbital Mechanics Particles Parts, Analog IC   Digital IC   Discrete Pendulum Planets Pressure Prime Numbers Questions Radiation Refraction Relativistic Motion Resistance, Resistivity Rotation Series SI (metric) prefixes Skin Effect Specific Heat Springs Stellar magnitude Thermal Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion Thermodynamics Trigonometry Units, Conversions Vectors Volume, Area Water Wave Motion Wire, Cu   Al   metric Young's Modulus