Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction of a wave
due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly
observed when a wave passes from one medium to another
at any angle other than 90° or 0°. Refraction of light
is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but any type
of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium,
for example when sound waves pass from one medium into
another or when water waves move into water of a
different depth. Refraction is described by Snell's
law, which states that the angle of incidence θ₁ is
related to the angle of refraction θ₂ by:

sinθ₁/sinθ₂ = v₁/v₂ = n₂/n₁

where v₁ and v₂ are the wave velocities in the
respective media, and n₁ and n₂ the refractive indices.
In general, the incident wave is partially refracted
and partially reflected; the details of this behavior
are described by the Fresnel equations.

Many materials have a well-characterized refractive
index, but these indices depend strongly upon the
frequency of light. Standard refractive index
measurements are taken at yellow doublet sodium D line,
with a wavelength of 589 nanometres. There are also
weaker dependencies on temperature, pressure/stress, et
cetera, as well on precise material compositions
(presence of dopants et cetera); for many materials and
typical conditions, however, these variations are at
the percent level or less.

Refractive indices

Acetone 1.36
Air at STP 1.00029
Alcohol, Ethyl (grain) 1.36
Alcohol, Methyl (wood) 1.329
Alexandrite 1.746–1.755
Almandine 1.75–1.83
Aluminum 1.39
Amber 1.539–1.545
Amethyst 1.532–1.554
Ammolite 1.52 -1.68
Andalusite 1.629–1.650
Apatite 1.632–1.42
Aquamarine 1.567-1.590
Arsenic trisulfide glass 2.04
Axenite 1.674–1.704
Beer 1.345
Beryl 1.57–1.60
Beryl, Red 1.570–1.598
Carbon disulfide 1.63
Carbonated Beverages 1.34–1.356
Chalcedony 1.544–1.553
Chlorine (liq) 1.385
Chrome Tourmaline, 1.61–1.64
Citrine 1.532–1.554
Clinohumite 1.625–1.675
Copper 2.43
Coral 1.486–1.658
Cranberry Juice (25%) 1.351
Crown glasses 1.52-1.62
Crysoberyl, Catseye 1.746–1.755
Crystal 2.000
Danburite 1.627–1.641
Diamond 2.417
Emerald 1.560–1.605
Ethyl alcohol 1.36
Eye, Aqueous humor 1.33
Eye, Cornea 1.38
Eye, Lens 1.41
Eye, Vitreous humor 1.34
Flourite 1.434
Fluorite 1.433
Fruit Juice
Fused quartz 1.46
Garnet, Andradite 1.88–1.94
Garnet, Demantiod 1.880–1.9
Garnet, Mandarin 1.790–1.8
Garnet, Pyrope 1.73–1.76
Garnet, Rhodolite 1.740–1.770
Garnet, Tsavorite 1.739–1.744
Garnet, Uvarovite 1.74–1.87
Glass, Arsenic Trisulfide 2.04
Glass, Crown (common) 1.52
Glass, Flint, 29% lead 1.569
Glass, Flint, 55% lead 1.669
Glass, Flint, 71% lead 1.805
Glass, Fused Silica 1.459
Glass, Pyrex 1.474
Glycerin 1.473
Glycerine 1.473
Gold 0.166
Hauyn 1.490–1.505
Honey, 13% water content 1.504
Honey, 17% water content 1.494
Honey, 21% water content 1.484
Ice 1.309
Iolite 1.522–1.578
Jade, Jadeite 1.64–1.667
Jade, Nephrite 1.600–1.641
Jet 1.660
Kunzite 1.660–1.676
Labradorite 1.560–1.572
Lanthanum flint 1.82-1.98
Lapis Lazuli 1.50–1.55
Lucite 1.495
Methylene iodide 1.74
Milk 1.35
Moonstone 1.518–1.526
Morganite 1.585–1.594
Mylar 1.65
Nickel 1.08
Nylon 1.53
Obsidian 1.50
Oil of Wintergreen 1.536
Oil, Clove 1.535
Oil, Lemon 1.481
Oil, Neroli 1.482
Oil, Orange 1.473
Oil, Safflower 1.466
Oil, vegetable (50° C) 1.47
Opal, Black 1.440–1.460
Opal, Fire 1.430–1.460
Opal, White 1.440–1.460
Oregon Sunstone 1.560–1.572
Padparadja 1.760–1.773
Peridot 1.635–1.690
Plastic 1.460–1.55
Platinum 2.33
Plexiglas 1.488
Polystyrene 1.55-1.59
Quartz 1.544–1.553
Rare earth flint 1.7-1.84
Ruby 1.757–1.779
Rum, White 1.361
Salt 1.516
Sapphire 1.757–1.779
Sapphire 1.77
Sapphire, Star 1.760–1.773
Shampoo 1.362
Silver 1.35
Sodium chloride 1.54
Spectacle crown, C-1 1.523
Spessarite 1.79–1.81
Spinel 1.712–1.717
Spinel, Blue 1.712–1.747
Spinel, Red 1.708–1.735
Star Ruby 1.76–1.773
Sugar solution (30%) 1.38
Sugar solution (80%) 1.49
Tanzanite 1.692–1.700
Titanium 2.16
Topaz 1.607–1.627
Topaz, Imperial 1.605-1.640
Tourmaline 1.603–1.655
Tourmaline, Blue 1.61–1.64
Tourmaline, Catseye 1.61–1.64
Tourmaline, Green 1.61–1.64
Tourmaline, Paraiba 1.61–1.65
Tourmaline, Red 1.61–1.64
Turpentine 1.472
Vacuum 1.00000
Vodka 1.363
Water (0° C) 1.33346
Water (100° C) 1.31766
Water (20° C) 1.33283
Whisky 1.356
Zircon 1.777–1.987
Zirconia, Cubic 2.173–2.21


Home

Area, Volume
Atomic Mass
Black Body Radiation
Boolean Algebra
Calculus
Capacitor
Center of Mass
Carnot Cycle
Charge
Chemistry
  Elements
  Reactions
Circuits
Complex numbers
Constants
Curves, lines
deciBell
Density
Electronics
Elements
Flow in fluids
Fourier's Law
Gases
Gravitation
Greek Alphabet
Horizon Distance
Interest
Magnetics
Math   Trig
Math, complex
Maxwell's Eq's
Motion
Newton's Laws
Octal/Hex Codes
Orbital Mechanics
Particles
Parts, Analog IC
  Digital IC   Discrete
Pendulum
Planets
Pressure
Prime Numbers
Questions
Radiation
Refraction
Relativistic Motion
Resistance, Resistivity
Rotation
Series
SI (metric) prefixes
Skin Effect
Specific Heat
Springs
Stellar magnitude
Thermal
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Thermodynamics
Trigonometry
Units, Conversions
Vectors
Volume, Area
Water
Wave Motion
Wire, Cu   Al   metric
Young's Modulus