Wave Motion
Electromagnetic Waves

λf = c = 2.998e8 m/s (speed of light in vacuum)
λ = Wavelength in meters
f = frequency in Hz

Speed of light
299,792,458 meters per second in vacuum (exactly)
299,704,600 meters per second in air
224,900,000 meters per second in water
124,000,000 meters per second in diamond
about 186,291.1 miles per second in vacuum

Energy equivalent to an EM photon
E = hf, where h = Plank's constant 6.626e-34 Js
E = hc/λ (alternate form)
E is the energy of the particle in Joules
f is frequency in Hertz, λ is wavelength in meters
c is speed of light in m/s, aprox 3e8 m/s
1 MeV = 1.6e-13 Joules or 160 fJ
1 Gev = 1.6e-10 Joules or 160 pJ

The de Broglie equations relate the wavelength λ to the
momentum p, and frequency f to the total energy E of a particle:
λ = h/p
F = e/h
The equation can be equivalently written as
p = h'k
E = h'ω
where h' = h/2π is Dirac's constant
k = 2π/λ angular wavenumber
ω = 2πf angular frequency

Stefan–Boltzmann Law, energy radiated by a black body
P/A = σT⁴
T is absolute temperature in K
σ is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant, σ ≈ 5.67e−8 W/(m²K⁴)
P is energy per unit time, J/s or W
A is the surface area in m²

doppler Δf = v/λ = vf/c
v = velocity of source relative to listener
λ = wavelength of source, relative to source
f = frequency of source, relative to source
c is speed of light in m/s, aprox 3e8 m/s
z = v/c (redshift)

Relativistic doppler
β = v/c
z = Δf/f₀ = (fs – f₀)/f₀ = Δλ/λ₀ = (λ₀ – λs)/λ₀
Δf = f₀(√((1 + β) / (1 – β)) – 1)
z = (1 + β)γ – 1 (redshift)
z = √((1 + β) / (1 – β)) – 1
(only for motion in the direction of line of sight)
z = γ – 1
(only for motion at right angle to the line of sight)

Doppler Radar
fr = ft(c + v)/(c – v)
fr is shifted frequency
ft is original frequency
v is target velocity
c is speed of light

fd = ft – ft = 2vft//(c – v) ≈ 2vft/c
fd is beat frequency or doppler frequency

Color Spectrum
Color .. Frequency ....... Wavelength
UV ...... 780THz-30PHz . 10-380 nm
violet ... 668–780 THz .. 380–450 nm
blue ..... 631–668 THz .. 450–475 nm
cyan .... 606–630 THz .. 476–495 nm
green ... 526–606 THz .. 495–570 nm
yellow . 508–526 THz .. 570–590 nm
orange . 484–508 THz .. 590–620 nm
red ....... 400–484 THz .. 620–750 nm
IR ........ 300GHz-430THz 700nm-1mm

see also Refraction

Sound

λf = c (speed of the wave in m/s)
λ = Wavelength in meters
f = frequency in Hz

doppler Δf = v/λ = vf/s
v = velocity of source relative to listener
λ = wavelength of source, relative to source
f = frequency of source, relative to source
s = 343 m/s = speed of sound
s = 331.3√(1+T/273.15) m/s
T is temp ºC

string vibration
v = √(T/μ)
f = (1/(2L))√(T/μ)
v is velocity of propogation
T is tension in string
μ is linear density of the string (mass per unit length)
f is frequency of sound
L is length of string

Speed of sound in air vs temperature
s = (331 + 0.606T) m/s
T is temperature in ºC
A more accurate formula is
s = 20.0457√(T + 273.15)

speed of sound in water is 1484 m/s
speed of sound in salt water is 1533 m/s
speed of sound in copper is 3810 m/s
speed of sound in Hg liquid is 1450 m/s
speed of sound in methanol is 1143 m/s
speed of sound in diamond is 12000 m/s
speed of sound in pyrex glass is 5640 m/s
speed of sound in iron is 5130 m/s
speed of sound in al is 5100 m/s
speed of sound in brass is 4700 m/s
speed of sound in copper is 3560 m/s
speed of sound in gold is 3240 m/s
speed of sound in lead is 1322 m/s
speed of sound in rubber is 1600 m/s
speed of sound in H2 at 0ºC is 1286 m/s
speed of sound in He at 0ºC is 972 m/s
speed of sound in Air at 0ºC is 331 m/s
speed of sound in Air at 20ºC is 343 m/s

Spacial wave

wavenumber is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance
(analogous to frequency)
(recommended terms: repetency and angular repetency)
For quantum mechanical waves, wavenumber multiplied by Planck's constant is the canonical momentum.

k = 2π/λ
the number of radians per unit distance, sometimes termed the angular wavenumber, in 1/meters
λ is wavelength in m

Home

Area, Volume
Atomic Mass
Black Body Radiation
Boolean Algebra
Calculus
Capacitor
Center of Mass
Carnot Cycle
Charge
Chemistry
  Elements
  Reactions
Circuits
Complex numbers
Constants
Curves, lines
deciBell
Density
Electronics
Elements
Flow in fluids
Fourier's Law
Gases
Gravitation
Greek Alphabet
Horizon Distance
Interest
Magnetics
Math   Trig
Math, complex
Maxwell's Eq's
Motion
Newton's Laws
Octal/Hex Codes
Orbital Mechanics
Particles
Parts, Analog IC
  Digital IC   Discrete
Pendulum
Planets
Pressure
Prime Numbers
Questions
Radiation
Refraction
Relativistic Motion
Resistance, Resistivity
Rotation
Series
SI (metric) prefixes
Skin Effect
Specific Heat
Springs
Stellar magnitude
Thermal
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Thermodynamics
Trigonometry
Units, Conversions
Vectors
Volume, Area
Water
Wave Motion
Wire, Cu   Al   metric
Young's Modulus