Wave Motion Electromagnetic Waves λf = c = 2.998e8 m/s (speed of light in vacuum) λ = Wavelength in meters f = frequency in Hz Speed of light 299,792,458 meters per second in vacuum (exactly) 299,704,600 meters per second in air 224,900,000 meters per second in water 124,000,000 meters per second in diamond about 186,291.1 miles per second in vacuum Energy equivalent to an EM photon E = hf, where h = Plank's constant 6.626e-34 Js E = hc/λ (alternate form) E is the energy of the particle in Joules f is frequency in Hertz, λ is wavelength in meters c is speed of light in m/s, aprox 3e8 m/s 1 MeV = 1.6e-13 Joules or 160 fJ 1 Gev = 1.6e-10 Joules or 160 pJ The de Broglie equations relate the wavelength λ to the momentum p, and frequency f to the total energy E of a particle: λ = h/p F = e/h The equation can be equivalently written as p = h'k E = h'ω where h' = h/2π is Dirac's constant k = 2π/λ angular wavenumber ω = 2πf angular frequency Stefan–Boltzmann Law, energy radiated by a black body P/A = σT⁴ T is absolute temperature in K σ is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant, σ ≈ 5.67e−8 W/(m²K⁴) P is energy per unit time, J/s or W A is the surface area in m² doppler Δf = v/λ = vf/c v = velocity of source relative to listener λ = wavelength of source, relative to source f = frequency of source, relative to source c is speed of light in m/s, aprox 3e8 m/s z = v/c (redshift) Relativistic doppler β = v/c z = Δf/f₀ = (fs – f₀)/f₀ = Δλ/λ₀ = (λ₀ – λs)/λ₀ Δf = f₀(√((1 + β) / (1 – β)) – 1) z = (1 + β)γ – 1 (redshift) z = √((1 + β) / (1 – β)) – 1 (only for motion in the direction of line of sight) z = γ – 1 (only for motion at right angle to the line of sight) Doppler Radar fr = ft(c + v)/(c – v) fr is shifted frequency ft is original frequency v is target velocity c is speed of light fd = ft – ft = 2vft//(c – v) ≈ 2vft/c fd is beat frequency or doppler frequency Color Spectrum Color .. Frequency ....... Wavelength UV ...... 780THz-30PHz . 10-380 nm violet ... 668–780 THz .. 380–450 nm blue ..... 631–668 THz .. 450–475 nm cyan .... 606–630 THz .. 476–495 nm green ... 526–606 THz .. 495–570 nm yellow . 508–526 THz .. 570–590 nm orange . 484–508 THz .. 590–620 nm red ....... 400–484 THz .. 620–750 nm IR ........ 300GHz-430THz 700nm-1mm see also Refraction Sound λf = c (speed of the wave in m/s) λ = Wavelength in meters f = frequency in Hz doppler Δf = v/λ = vf/s v = velocity of source relative to listener λ = wavelength of source, relative to source f = frequency of source, relative to source s = 343 m/s = speed of sound s = 331.3√(1+T/273.15) m/s T is temp ºC string vibration v = √(T/μ) f = (1/(2L))√(T/μ) v is velocity of propogation T is tension in string μ is linear density of the string (mass per unit length) f is frequency of sound L is length of string Speed of sound in air vs temperature s = (331 + 0.606T) m/s T is temperature in ºC A more accurate formula is s = 20.0457√(T + 273.15) speed of sound in water is 1484 m/s speed of sound in salt water is 1533 m/s speed of sound in copper is 3810 m/s speed of sound in Hg liquid is 1450 m/s speed of sound in methanol is 1143 m/s speed of sound in diamond is 12000 m/s speed of sound in pyrex glass is 5640 m/s speed of sound in iron is 5130 m/s speed of sound in al is 5100 m/s speed of sound in brass is 4700 m/s speed of sound in copper is 3560 m/s speed of sound in gold is 3240 m/s speed of sound in lead is 1322 m/s speed of sound in rubber is 1600 m/s speed of sound in H2 at 0ºC is 1286 m/s speed of sound in He at 0ºC is 972 m/s speed of sound in Air at 0ºC is 331 m/s speed of sound in Air at 20ºC is 343 m/s Spacial wave wavenumber is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance (analogous to frequency) (recommended terms: repetency and angular repetency) For quantum mechanical waves, wavenumber multiplied by Planck's constant is the canonical momentum. k = 2π/λ the number of radians per unit distance, sometimes termed the angular wavenumber, in 1/meters λ is wavelength in m Home Area, Volume Atomic Mass Black Body Radiation Boolean Algebra Calculus Capacitor Center of Mass Carnot Cycle Charge Chemistry   Elements   Reactions Circuits Complex numbers Constants Curves, lines deciBell Density Electronics Elements Flow in fluids Fourier's Law Gases Gravitation Greek Alphabet Horizon Distance Interest Magnetics Math   Trig Math, complex Maxwell's Eq's Motion Newton's Laws Octal/Hex Codes Orbital Mechanics Particles Parts, Analog IC   Digital IC   Discrete Pendulum Planets Pressure Prime Numbers Questions Radiation Refraction Relativistic Motion Resistance, Resistivity Rotation Series SI (metric) prefixes Skin Effect Specific Heat Springs Stellar magnitude Thermal Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion Thermodynamics Trigonometry Units, Conversions Vectors Volume, Area Water Wave Motion Wire, Cu   Al   metric Young's Modulus