Four Laws of Thermodynamics
Specific Heat
Thermal properties of Water
Specific Heat of Water Versus Temp
Water Ice Properties
Specific Heat Table
Latent Heat of Fusion
Melting Point
Specific Heat Table
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity Table
Thermal Expansion Table

Specific Heat
heat capacity (C) has units of J/K
specific heat capacity (c) has units of J/kg·K

U = c·m·∆T
U is energy in Joules to heat the material by ∆T
c is specific heat of the material in J/kg·K
m is mass in kg, ∆T is temperature change in ºC

Thermal properties of Water
specific heat of water is 4.186 kJ/kgC
specific heat of ice is 2.06 kJ/kgC
specific heat of steam is 2.1 kJ/kgK
heat of fusion of ice is 334 kJ/kg
heat of vaporization of water is 2256 kJ/kg
The triple point of water is at a temperature of 273.16K (0.01 °C)
by convention, and at a pressure of 611.73 Pa
Specific Heat of seawater at 20ºC is 3993 J/KgK
Freezing point of seawater ice is −1.910 °C
Boiling point of seawater 100.56 °C
thermal conductivity of seawater is 0.6 W/m•K

Specific Heat of Water Versus Temperature
10ºC 4.1921 kJ/kgC
20ºC 4.1818 kJ/kgC
30ºC 4.1784 kJ/kgC
40ºC 4.1785 kJ/kgC
50ºC 4.1806 kJ/kgC
60ºC 4.1843 kJ/kgC
70ºC 4.1895 kJ/kgC
80ºC 4.1963 kJ/kgC
90ºC 4.2050 kJ/kgC
100ºC 4.2159 kJ/kgC

Water Ice Properties versus temperature
Temp density thermal conductivity specific heat
(ºC)(kg/m3) (W/m•K)(kJ/kgK)
0 916.2 2.22 2.050 or 0.033 lb/in³ or 57.08 lb/ft³
-5 917.5 2.25 2.027
-10 918.9 2.30 2.000
-15 919.4 2.34 1.972
-20 919.4 2.39 1.943
-25 919.6 2.45 1.913
-30 920.0 2.50 1.882
-35 920.4 2.57 1.851
-40 920.8 2.63 1.818
-50 921.6 2.76 1.751
-60 922.4 2.90 1.681
-70 923.3 3.05 1.609
-80 924.1 3.19 1.536
-90 924.9 3.34 1.463
-100 925.7 3.48 1.389

Specific Heat Table
specific heat Aluminum is 921 J/kgC
specific heat Antimony is 209 J/kgK
specific heat Barium is 201 J/kgC
specific heat Beryllium is 1825 J/kgC
specific heat Bismuth is 126 J/kgK
specific heat Brass is 402 J/kgC
specific heat Cadmium is 230 J/kgK
specific heat Calcium is 628 J/kgK
specific heat Carbon (graphite) is 710 J/kgC
specific heat Carbon Steel is 502 J/kgC
specific heat Cast Iron is 460 J/kgC
specific heat Chromium is 460 J/kgC
specific heat Cobalt is 419 J/kgC
specific heat concrete (1-2-4 mix) at 20 C: 880 J/kgC
specific heat Copper is 377 J/kgC
specific heat ethanol is 2300 J/kgC
specific heat glass at 20 C: 840 J/kgK
specific heat Glycerin liquid (25ºC) 2410 J/kg•K
specific heat Glycerin solid (6-11ºC) 1630 J/kg•K
specific heat gold is 126 J/kgC
specific heat graphite is 710 J/kgC
specific heat granite is 790 J/kgC
specific heat Iridium is 1298 J/kgK
specific heat Iron is 450 J/kgC
specific heat isoproponal is 2370 J/kgC
specific heat lead is 126 J/kgC
specific heat Magnesium 1047 J/(kgC)
specific heat Manganese is 478 J/kgC
specific heat Mercury is 140 J/kgC
specific heat methanol is 2470 J/kgC
specific heat Molybdenum is 277 J/kgC
specific heat Nickel is 502 J/kgC
specific heat Niobium is 268 J/kgC
specific heat Osmium is 130 J/kgK
specific heat Platinum is 126 J/kgK
specific heat Plutonium is 134 J/kgK
specific heat Potassium 754 J/kgC
specific heat Rhodium is 243 J/kgC
specific heat sand 800 J/kgC
specific heat Selenium is 322 J/kgC
specific heat Silicon 712 J/kgC
specific heat silver is 239 J/kgC
specific heat Sodium 1210 J/(kgC)
specific heat Tantalum is 138 J/kgC
specific heat Thorium is 126 J/kgK
specific heat Tin is 218 J/kgK
specific heat Titanium is 544 J/kgC
specific heat Uranium is 117 J/kgK
specific heat Vanadium is 486 J/kgC
specific heat water is 4186 J/kgC
specific heat water ice is 2060 J/kgC
specific heat water steam is 2100 J/kgK
specific heat Wood, balsa 2900 J/kgC
specific heat Wood, oak 2000 J/kgC
specific heat Wood, white pine 2500 J/kgC
specific heat Wrought Iron is 500 J/kgC
specific heat Zinc is 390 J/kgC
specific heat Zirconium is 270 J/kgC

Latent Heat of Fusion and Melting Point
Aluminum 398 kJ/kg (melts at 660ºC)
Antimony 161 kJ/kg (melts at 630ºC)
Beryllium 1356 kJ/kg (melts at 1285ºC)
Bismuth 51.9 kJ/kg (melts at 271ºC)
Brass xxx kJ/kg (melts at 930ºC)
Cadmium 55 kJ/kg (melts at 839ºC)
Cast Iron 272 kJ/kg (melts at 1175-1290ºC)
Chromium 331 kJ/kg (melts at 1857ºC)
Cobalt 25 kJ/kg (melts at 1495ºC)
Copper 205 kJ/kg (melts at 1083ºC)
Gold 63 kJ/kg (melts at 1063ºC)
Iridium 138 kJ/kg (melts at 2450ºC)
Iron 272 kJ/kg (melts at 1535ºC)
Lead 23 kJ/kg (melts at 328ºC)
Magnesium 368 kJ/kg (melts at 650ºC)
Manganese 268 kJ/kg (melts at 1245ºC)
Mercury 11.3 kJ/kg (melts at –38.9ºC)
Molybdenum 289 kJ/kg (melts at 2617ºC)
Nickel 297 kJ/kg (melts at 1453ºC)
Niobium 285 kJ/kg (melts at 2470ºC)
Osmium 142 kJ/kg (melts at 3025ºC)
Platinum 100 kJ/kg (melts at 1768ºC)
Plutonium 12.6 kJ/kg (melts at 640ºC)
Potassium 61 kJ/kg (melts at 63.3ºC)
Rhodium 167 kJ/kg (melts at 1966ºC)
Selenium 67 kJ/kg (melts at 217ºC)
Silicon 1926 kJ/kg (melts at 1411ºC)
Silver 111 kJ/kg (melts at 961ºC)
Sodium 113 kJ/kg (melts at 97.8ºC)
Stainless Steel xxx kJ/kg (melts at 1425-1540ºC)
Tantalum 172 kJ/kg (melts at 2980ºC)
Thorium 71 kJ/kg (melts at 1750ºC)
Tin 59 kJ/kg (melts at 232ºC)
Titanium 419 kJ/kg (melts at 1670ºC)
Tungsten 193 kJ/kg (melts at 3400ºC)
Uranium 50 kJ/kg (melts at 1132ºC)
Vanadium 410 kJ/kg (melts at 1900ºC)
Zinc 113 kJ/kg (melts at 420ºC)
Zirconium xxx kJ/kg (melts at 1854ºC)

Thermal Conductivity
P = K x ∆T x A / d
K is thermal conductivity in W/m•K
P is power in watts transferred through the material
K is thermal conductivity of the material in W/m•K
∆T is change in temperature across the material
A is cross-sectional area in m²
d is thickness in m
or P = ∆T/R

Thermal resistance R = d/(A•K) in K/W
A = cross-sectional area
d = thickness

conductance is 1/resistance
resistance is 1/conductance
Thermal resistance is in K/W
thermal conductance is in W/K (watts per degree)

Resistivity is 1/conductivity

Thermal resistance = (thermal resistivity)d/A
Thermal conductance = (thermal conductivity)A/d
A = cross-sectional area
d = thickness

Thermal Conductivity Table
thermal conductivity of Aluminum 250 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Antimony is 18.5 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Beryllium is 218 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Brass is 109 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Brick work 0.69 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of carbon, diamond is 470 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of carbon, graphite is 25-470 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Copper is 401 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Gold is 310 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Granite is 2.2 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Iron is 80 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Lead is 35 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Magnesium is 156 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Mercury is 8 W/m•K (no convection)
thermal conductivity of Nickel is 91 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Platinum is 70 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Silver is 429 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Stainless Steel is 16 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Steel is 46 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Tin is 67 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of titanium is 21.9 W/m•K
thermal conductivity of Zinc Zn is 116 W/m•K
Larger Table

Thermal Expansion

∆L/L = α∆T, α is linear thermal expansion coef
L = L₀(1 + α∆T)
∆A/A = 2α∆T
∆V/V = 3α∆T
∆V = αᵥV∆T, αᵥ is volume thermal expansion coef

linear thermal expansion coef Cu 17e-6 /K
linear thermal expansion coef Fe 11.8e-6 /K
linear thermal expansion coef Al 23.1e-6 /K
linear thermal expansion coef Pb 28.9e-6 /K
linear thermal expansion coef brass 19e-6 /K
linear thermal expansion coef silver is 18e-6 /K
linear thermal expansion coef Borosilicate glass 3.3e-6/K
linear thermal expansion coef soda lime glass 9e-6/K
linear thermal expansion coef window glass 9.5e-6/K
linear thermal expansion clear fused silica/quartz 5.5e-7/K
Volume thermal expansion coef Hg 0.000181/K
Volume thermal expansion coef glycerin 0.000615/K
Volume thermal expansion coef water 0.000214/K at 20ºC
Larger Table


Area, Volume
Atomic Mass
Black Body Radiation
Boolean Algebra
Center of Mass
Carnot Cycle
Complex numbers
Curves, lines
Flow in fluids
Fourier's Law
Greek Alphabet
Horizon Distance
Math   Trig
Math, complex
Maxwell's Eq's
Newton's Laws
Octal/Hex Codes
Orbital Mechanics
Parts, Analog IC
  Digital IC   Discrete
Prime Numbers
Relativistic Motion
Resistance, Resistivity
SI (metric) prefixes
Skin Effect
Specific Heat
Stellar magnitude
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Units, Conversions
Volume, Area
Wave Motion
Wire, Cu   Al   metric
Young's Modulus