Electronics Circuits   electronics   resistors capacitors ```Rectfier waveforms Half wave rectified Vrms = Vp / 2 Vdc = Vav = Vp / π Full wave rectified Vdc = Vav = 2Vp/π Vrms = Vp/√2 3 phase full wave Vdc = Vav = Vp(3√3/π) = 1.65Vp RMS voltage (all symmetrical around zero volts except pulse) sine wave Vp/√2 square wave Vp triangle wave Vp/√3 Sawtooth wave Vp/√3 Pulse train Vp√D where D is duty cycle, percent time spent high To add a DC offset(Vd) to a waveform Vrms = √(Va² + Vd²) where Va is the RMS of the waveform. Junction Transistor Amplifier Common Emitter (β = HFE) input Resistance Rb = 25β/Ie (Ie in ma) This is paralleled by the bias resistors Voltage gain Av = RʟIe/25 (Ie in ma, Rʟ in Ω) Output resistance is Rʟ Common Emitter with emitter resistor This allows you to set the gain by omission of the bypass cap on all or part of Re. input Resistance Rb = REβ + 25β/Ie (Ie in ma) This is paralleled by the bias resistors Voltage gain Vg = RL / (RE+Re) Output resistance is Rʟ Re = 25 mV / IE Common Collector (emitter follower) input Resistance is Reβ This is paralleled by the bias resistors Voltage gain Av = approx 1 Output resistance is the source R/β where source R is the output R of the previous stage in parallel with Re Common Base input Resistance Rb = 25/Ie (Ie in ma) Output resistance is R∟ Current gain = 1 Opamp: feedback gain with finite gain G₀ is gain with infinite gain opamp, with finite gain A G = G₀A/(A+1+G₀) ``` Home Area, Volume Atomic Mass Black Body Radiation Boolean Algebra Calculus Capacitor Center of Mass Carnot Cycle Charge Chemistry   Elements   Reactions Circuits Complex numbers Constants Curves, lines deciBell Density Electronics Elements Flow in fluids Fourier's Law Gases Gravitation Greek Alphabet Horizon Distance Interest Magnetics Math   Trig Math, complex Maxwell's Eq's Motion Newton's Laws Octal/Hex Codes Orbital Mechanics Particles Parts, Analog IC   Digital IC   Discrete Pendulum Planets Pressure Prime Numbers Questions Radiation Refraction Relativistic Motion Resistance, Resistivity Rotation Series SI (metric) prefixes Skin Effect Specific Heat Springs Stellar magnitude Thermal Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion Thermodynamics Trigonometry Units, Conversions Vectors Volume, Area Water Wave Motion Wire, Cu   Al   metric Young's Modulus