Chemistry   Elements     Reactions     Gases ```Mole The mole is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities (e.g., atoms, molecules, ions, electrons) as there are atoms in 12 g of the isotope carbon-12 Or, a mole of any pure substance has a mass in grams exactly equal to that substance's molecular or atomic mass. 1 mole of C12 is 12 grams 1 mole of Ca40 is 40g (39.962g more exactly) Or, 1 mole = 6.022×10^23 molecules of the substance Avogadro constant, Na = 6.022e23 /mol It is the number of atoms (or molecules) per mole Molar mass Molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance divided by the amount of substance. The base SI unit for molar mass is kg/mol. However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. Example: the molar mass of water: M(H₂O) ≈ 18.01488 g/mol Molar volume The molar volume Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance at a given temperature and pressure. It is equal to the molar mass (M) divided by the mass density (ρ). It has the SI unit m³/mol, although it is more practical to use dm³/mol) for gases and cm³/mol for liquids and solids. Molar Concentration (molarity) a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution. In chemistry, the most commonly used unit for molarity is the number of moles per litre, having the unit symbol mol/L. A solution with a concentration of 1 mol/L is said to be 1 molar, commonly designated as 1 M. 1 M = 1 mol/L 1 mM = 0.001 mol/L 1 µM = 0.000001 mol/L Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent. This contrasts with the definition of molarity which is based on a specified volume of solution. A commonly used unit for molality in chemistry is mol/kg. A solution of concentration 1 mol/kg is also sometimes denoted as 1 molal. pH pH is defined as the logarithm (base 10) of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity, aH+, in a solution. Strong acides are pH of 1 to 5.5 weak acids 5.6 to 6.5 nwutral 6.6 to 7.3 weak bases 7.4 to 8.4 strong bases 8.5 to 14 pH = –log(aH+) = log(1/aH+) pOH is a measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions. pOH ≈ 14 − pH strong acids/bases pH is equal to minus the logarithm of the concentration value. eg: The pH of a 0.01M solution of HCl is equal to −log(0.01), that is, pH=2 eg: he p[OH] value of a 0.01M solution of NaOH is equal to −log(0.01), that is, p[OH] = 2. Speed of molecules Vrms = √(3kʙT/m) kʙ = Boltzmann constant, 1.381×10^−23 J/K m is mass of molecule in kg T is temp in kelvins for N₂ molecule at room temp V = √(3•298•1.381e-23/4.65e-23) = 16.2 m/s N₂ molecular weight is 28 1 mole weighs 28g and is 6.022×10^23 molecules therefore 1 molecule weighs 28/6.022e23 or 4.65e-23 kg ``` Home Area, Volume Atomic Mass Black Body Radiation Boolean Algebra Calculus Capacitor Center of Mass Carnot Cycle Charge Chemistry   Elements   Reactions Circuits Complex numbers Constants Curves, lines deciBell Density Electronics Elements Flow in fluids Fourier's Law Gases Gravitation Greek Alphabet Horizon Distance Interest Magnetics Math   Trig Math, complex Maxwell's Eq's Motion Newton's Laws Octal/Hex Codes Orbital Mechanics Particles Parts, Analog IC   Digital IC   Discrete Pendulum Planets Pressure Prime Numbers Questions Radiation Refraction Relativistic Motion Resistance, Resistivity Rotation Series SI (metric) prefixes Skin Effect Specific Heat Springs Stellar magnitude Thermal Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion Thermodynamics Trigonometry Units, Conversions Vectors Volume, Area Water Wave Motion Wire, Cu   Al   metric Young's Modulus